PAR 2-Triangle Effect of Inflammation

Skin can react in a multitude of ways, manifesting inflammation in the form of redness, rashes, itching, or dry and dehydrated skin. Often, chemicals, soaps, dyes or perfume can cause allergic reactions and an immediate inflammatory response.  A majority of today’s skin problems begin with free radical damage and unwanted germs that have collected on the skin. Conditions can become aggravated by various external influences such as pollutants, an unhealthy diet, lifestyle, or stress.


Skin that is prone to sensitivity from perfumes, dyes, as well as the environment has a need for safe, gentle and effective skin solutions. Doctors and hospitals have used medical grade silver for many years to assist healing fragile skin post surgery with superb results. Because of this recent research and proven benefits, Lorenol Labs™ made the careful decision to add Microsilver® to our line of Clinical Aesthetics Advanced Skin Care products, incorporating it with our patent pending LORENOL®  technology. 


The combination of sulforaphane and other natural botanicals in LORENOL I, LORENOL II and LORENOL III® has been widely used in food and flavoring agents for generations and has been approved by the FDA and ISO.  Each of these ingredients has been tested extensively by the NTP (National Toxicology Program) for safety, and (GRAS) Generally Regarded As Safe.


Testing results with this combined formula have shown that: 


  1. LORENOL ILORENOL II and LORENOL III® all have natural analgesic and antihistamine activity when applied to the skin.         

  2. LORENOL ILORENOL II and LORENOL III®  all help to stimulate anti-aging genes including hyaluronic acid, collagen, and elastin.​

  3. LORENOL ILORENOL II and LORENOL III® all block the production and action of many inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and hormones (PGE-2) produced by human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, as well as those made by immune cells such as monocytes and T-lymphocytes.          ​

  4. LORENOL I®  has a small molecular weight (177) with oil solubility properties, allowing it to penetrate skin rapidly.

  5. Topical formulations containing LORENOL® with sulforaphane are extremely effective in reducing the severity of rosacea, eczema, and acne, and can visibly help prevent damage to skin after laser and medical treatments.

  6. LORENOL ILORENOL II  and LORENOL III®  along with sulforaphane, all have been identified to have pronounced anti-inflammatory actives, as well as anti-aging properties, all of which help to improve skin's ability to heal. 

Par 2 inhibitor - PAR-2 is Protease Activated Receptor 2 and is abundantly expressed by almost all cell types, especially on keratinocytes and itch-sensitive C-fibre endings.


  • It is the “Crosstalk between mast cells and nerve endings” (itch sensitive, unmelinated C fibers) Signaling itching to the brain.

  • Par 2 is the triangle effect of erythema and edema - Itch and pain typically go hand in hand.    


Activation of PAR-2 induces: 

  1. The release of neuropeptides like CGRP (calcitonin gene-related peptide) and SP (substance P) from sensory nerve  endings, triggering itch and inflammation pathways 

  2. Mast cell degranulation via SP release 

  3. Up-regulation of inflammation mediators like IL-6 and IL-8 

  4. Itch signaling to the brain 

  5. PAR-2 mediates itch, neurogenic inflammation, and nociception (via  activation of the TPRV1 receptor)


Accumulating evidence for the involvement of PAR-2 activation can be found in: 

Atopic dermatitis (AD)

Predisposed AD                                                                                                                                                                                 Aged skin                                                                                                                                                                                             Dry skin                                                                                                                                                                                               Inflammation                                                                                                                                                                                     Itchy skin                                                                                                                                                                                             Skin toning                                                                                                                                                                                         Barrier homeostasis              

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